Bruise: medicines used in the treatment

Published At: 18 January 2020 , 06:41 PM

A bruise is a type of injury arising from direct exposure to a mechanical damaging factor, for example, an impact by an object or an effect on an object. As a result of the immediate destructive implications of an object and its kinetic energy during an impact, tissue cells damaged.

General information

A bruise is a closed soft tissue injury. As a rule, with a bruise, there is no rupture of surface tissues, only rupture of small vessels (capillaries). But sometimes a bruise can cause significant damage, such as a bruise of the head. Also, a bruise may accompany other wounds, such as a fracture. In this case, they speak of bruised injuries. 

Causes of Injury

The cause of the injury punched with a hammer, fist, stick, kettlebell, punches when dropped, punches from falling bodies, stones, etc. For industrial injuries, localization of lesions on the upper limb is characteristic of street injuries - damage to the head, chest, and lower extremities. Bruising is an illness in the tissue in the absence of damage to the skin. Depending on the depth of the hemorrhage, it will be noticeable either soon (contusion of the superficial muscles), or in a few days (injury of the inward parts).

Kinds

Depending on the location of the damage, bruises are distinguished:

brushes;

finger

elbow

shoulder

forearm

brain;

the head;

backs;

chest

abdominal cavity;

tailbone;

the knee;

hips

lower legs;

feet.

Depending on the nature of the damage, bruises are:

Grade 1 - a minor bruise - is manifested by scratches and abrasions, almost painless; for several days heals without care;

2 degree - a rather painful bruise, in which muscle tissue is damaged, accompanied by hematomas  and edema ;

3 degree - ligaments and tendons are damaged;

Grade 4 - severe trauma that can threaten health, the work of damaged organs may be disrupted.

Bruising symptoms

With bruises, the skin damaged, and the organs located under the skin suffer. Damaged vessels begin to bleed, resulting in a bruise - this is an accumulation of blood in the surrounding tissues after a bruise. When small vessels are damaged, blood stops flowing inside the tissues after ten minutes. And if large ships destroyed, then blood can flow for about a day. These symptoms of bruises are considered the most common and necessary.

During the first day, the bruise will be bluish; after three to four days, it will become more yellow. The swelling will occur in this place, and the person will feel pain. But then the pain will go away; only unpleasant sensations will remain with some movements, which will also pass soon. If the bruise was too severe, then organs located close to the injured area may be damaged.

In the place of damage, where there is a bruise, swelling localized due to hemorrhage and inflammatory edema. The size of the swelling is higher where there is looser subcutaneous tissue. An example is the swelling of the face, the rear of the hand, the area of ​​some joints. In the same places, hemorrhages are more pronounced. They are detected on the 2-3rd day in the form of blue spots (bruises), as the elements of blood decay and absorb, changing the color to blue-purple, green, yellow.

Palpation of the swelling where there is a bruise is usually painful. In places where the tissues are denser, shrouded in aponeurotic cases (for example, the forearm), compression of the nerve endings with hemorrhage and edema causes especially severe pain. When striking on a tangent, in some cases, the skin detaches from the underlying tissues (sometimes over a large extent), which modifies the picture of the bruise. Under the skin, a cavity formed, filled with exudate mixed with blood and lymph. An extensive fluctuating swelling is clinically determined.

Another unique form is a joint wound, in which hemorrhage occurs not only in the periarticular tissues but also in the joint cavity - hemarthrosis. The joint enlarged in volume, its contours smoothed, swelling indicates the presence of free fluid in the joint cavity. If there is a bruise of the knee joint, balloting (spring oscillation) of the patella is detected. It found in this way: if you hold the knee joint with your palms while simultaneously pushing it with your thumbs, the patella is suspended in fluid and separated from the femur.

The effects of bruises

As a result of a bruise of the lower leg in the area of ​​its front-inner surface, where the skin and subcutaneous tissue are adjacent to the bone, skin necrosis and its subsequent rejection are possible.

When hitting bones with little protection by soft tissues, not only very painful bruises of the periosteum with its detachment occur, but also damage to bones (cracks and fractures).

A strike in the direction oblique to the skin surface can cause it to detach along with the subcutaneous tissue.

When soft tissue is injured, a hemorrhage increases at the site of damage and a more or less pronounced swelling form. Blood gradually impregnates the tissue, can accumulate (hemarthrosis).

With a bruised joint (for example, a knee), several hours after the injury, its volume increases, the function is impaired, the pain intensifies (especially with movements). The leg, in this case, is slightly bent, its extension is sharply painful.

With a bruised head, only a slight swelling (“bump”) can occur, which does not cause much trouble. However, if the trauma accompanied by loss of consciousness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, etc., then most likely, there was a concussion or even a brain injury.

With a bruised neck, in addition to the damage to the soft tissues, blood flow in the vessels passing here can be disturbed a second time, which disrupts the blood supply to the brain.

With a bruised back (spine), blood circulation of the spinal cord may be impaired (there is a decrease in sensitivity in the limbs, impaired muscle function, etc.).

With a bruise of the chest, only local changes in the superficial soft tissues can be noted, but with a strong blow, for example, as a result of a fall, breathing may be disturbed, with strokes in the region of the heart, it may stop.

A wound of the abdomen sometimes accompanied by damage to internal organs (for example, rupture of the liver, spleen, accompanied by internal bleeding).

Often, at the site of application of traumatic force, especially when the skin is detached, abrasions and shallow wounds of the skin are observed, which serve as the entrance gate to the causative agents of various infections.

What can you do

If you are sure that a fracture does not accompany the bruise, then it is enough to make a fixing pressure bandage. If there is a possibility that a fracture accompanies a big bruise, then, in addition to the bandage, immobilize the limb with the help of a tire or if the big bruise is localized on the body, lay the victim so that he is at rest. If, as a result of a concussion, a person experiences the urge to vomit, help him take a medicine that will relieve him of nausea.

Also, do not forget about such an effective method of treating bruises as applying cold for this purpose. You can make a cold compress or compress from ice, which will significantly reduce the swelling of the bruised area and will help stop internal bleeding. But, using compresses from ice, do not forget that too long exposure to cold can lead to frostbite of the injured area.

What can a doctor do

With severe bruises and suspected complications, complete rest is necessary. The doctor, in the first hours after receiving an injury, should eliminate bleeding and reduce the hematoma in the patient. In this case, it is essential to apply ice or a cold compress, apply a tight bandage.

If an extremity has been injured, bandage the leg or arm with an elastic bandage and then apply ice. The limb must be kept in a high elevated state and sometimes loosen the bandage so as not to disturb the blood circulation. It is necessary to cool the site of bruises during the first day.

When a bruise received on the face or body, it is impossible to apply a bandage, and ice should be applied directly to the site of the bruise. Cold lotions must be done within twenty-four or thirty-six hours. Then, for the swelling to pass faster, the bruised place must be warmed up.

Half-alcohol compresses, warm baths prescribed. For severe and moderate bruises, magnetotherapy, UHF therapy, electrophoresis of potassium iodide, oxidase, lidase used. After severe bruises, a hematoma may occur, having clear boundaries. If it does not pass for a long time, it is removed surgically, usually by a puncture.