Causes, symptoms and treatment of eczema. Types of eczema, diet for dermatitis

Published At: 24 December 2019 , 02:01 PM

Eczema is an inflammatory skin disease that expressed in a rash in the form of papules with liquid contents, itching, swelling and burning. Rashes are dry or wet. A set of factors serves as a trigger: from regular contact with an allergen to metabolic disorders. It is essential to approach treatment comprehensively and thoroughly with quality prevention, and the first step should be to choose the right doctor.

Eczema passes in a chronic or acute form; exacerbations replace periods of remission. The problem of rashes is not only in aesthetics but also in the patient's self-awareness. They cause discomfort, bring pain, worsen morale. Allergic and neurological nature in combination with an undermined psychological state slows recovery.

Types of eczema:

Eczema is an idiopathic disease. The reasons why it appears are not fully understood. Doctors know several factors that, in combination or individually, can provoke a particular set of symptoms. For example, gastrointestinal tract pathologies, thyroid dysfunction, varicose veins, psychoemotional stress can lead to the development of eczema rash.

True eczema

Real eczema occurs chronically, manifests itself in a cyclical development from exacerbations to relapses. A distinctive feature of the disease is the presence of symmetrical inflammation on the body. The indicated balanced distribution can make such a diagnosis of the rash, the presence of small vesicles (small-papular rash), polymorphism. If you are allergic to anything and stress in the past, the accuracy of the diagnosis increases.

Stage:

erythematous - the skin turns red noticeably;

papulovesicular - vesicles appear;

weeping - bubbles burst, and micro erosion formed in their place;

crusts appear.

As a rule, all stages observed simultaneously.

Inflammations with this type are swollen, reddened; the surface gets wet from the exudate released. A characteristic manifestation is the syndrome of "serous wells", when excreted lies in drops, resembling dew. Within the focus of inflammation are vesicles with contents and crusts. In addition to foci of inflammation, there are scattered dry rashes on the body. If a person has long suffered from this disease, the quality of the skin is gradually changing — such patients characterised by infiltration, hyperemia, hyperpigmentation. The skin pattern is becoming more apparent, the skin thickens.


Microbial eczema

The causes of microbial eczema are factors associated with varicose veins (varicose eczema), injuries (peritraumatic), fungal infections (mycotic). The reason for the development is the basis for the selection of treatment.

The foci are asymmetric, as is the case with the previous view. As a rule, the centres of inflammation located in the lower part of the body - in the projection of the veins. The second option is skin folds, where intense sweating observed. The basis for the diagnosis are the anamnesis, symptoms, microscopy, bacteriological, histological examination:

with microscopy, you can find signs of mycosis in the form of mycotic cells;

in a bacteriological study, the type of fungus and the drug to which it is sensitive are determined;

histology reveals joint lymphoid infiltration with plasmacytic elements, epidermal localisation of vesicles, sclerotic skin change (if microbial eczema lasted a long time).

The spots have uneven edges, and the skin around thickened, red with blue. There are soaking crusts on the spots. On the periphery, the formation of single dry rashes is possible.

Often this type is complicated by new diseases.

Seborrheic eczema

Eczema is localised distinctively - on the head, in the anatomical folds, behind the ears, on the folds. On the territory of hair growth, dry skin, redness are noticeable, peeling separated from the spots, the patient experiences itching. Inflamed spots have outlined boundaries. They are dry, but sometimes there are serous-purulent or serous crusts, after the removal of which eroded wet spots appear.

With inflammation in the folds, cracks of great depth, oedema, swelling appear. Sometimes foci appear on the body, mainly in the lower part. They are clearly outlined, have a yellowish-pink colour, flaky, a rash observed in the middle section. Some doctors consider seborrheic eczema to be seborrheic dermatitis or real complicated eczema. However, histologically, these diseases can be distinguished.

The cause of occupational eczema is in regular contact with irritating substances. The trigger for the onset of the disease can be microtrauma, chemical and aggressive drugs, dust. In combination with existing allergies or impaired vascular permeability, this gives a rash. The clinical picture is similar to real eczema. Outbreaks are localised in places of contact with the allergen but are possible throughout the body.

The diagnosis made taking into account the clinical picture and evidence that exacerbations appear upon contact with certain substances. Also, this fact may indicate the fact that the symptoms disappear during the holidays.

Dyshidrotic eczema

The causes of dyshidrotic eczema is a violation of the sweat glands. Additional reasons contacted with substances that are known to be allergic. Exacerbations are characteristic of summertime or periods of severe stress. As a rule, the first symptoms affect the fingers - rashes begin to appear on the sides, after which they diverge to other areas.

Tylotic eczema

The preferred location for this type is the soles of the feet and palms. At the location of the bubbles, corns gradually formed. The disease becomes noticeable at the bladder stage - the erythematous stage weakly expressed because the skin is dense on these surfaces. Since eczema is a systemic disease, the patient may develop rashes in other places.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of eczema carried out in several stages:

primary examination by a dermatologist;

allergy research;

laboratory tests of blood/urine;

skin scraping;

immunofluorescence study.

As a rule, the diagnosis made clinically. The identification of atopic diseases in relatives helps confirm the diagnosis. The condition is similar to those similar to it - contact, nummular, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, for the differential diagnosis, the location of the spots and the causes of their appearance are essential.


Treatment principles

Treatment begins with the installation and elimination of provoking factors, which partially listed at the beginning of the article. It will not be possible to cure the disease, being in stress and psychophysical overstrain, always in contact with substances that cause allergic manifestations, without eliminating the microbial or fungal infection.

With any eczema, a positive effect is exerted by:

drug treatment - taking sedatives and antihistamines;

plasmapheresis and other extracorporeal hemocorrection methods;

vitamin therapy (local and internal) for cell regeneration.

With exacerbation, generalised nature and the inability to stop the re-occurrence of the disease, glucocorticosteroids can add to treatment. For local treatment, ointments and pastes with keratolytic properties are useful. They save the patient from itching and contain anti-inflammatory components.

To facilitate the drying of inflammations, special powders, chatters, ointments used. Spots should be covered from aggressive external influences - wind, frost, sun.

A wide range of physiotherapeutic procedures used for treatment:

ozone therapy - flowing aeration with a unique mixture of gases or irrigation and lotions with ozonated water;

magnetotherapy - a patient is exposed to a magnetic field in a special apparatus;

laser treatment;

cryotherapy - the use of cryosauna or cryo processing of affected areas;

irradiation with ultraviolet light;

bathtubs.

Physiotherapist selects a set of procedures on an individual basis.

In most cases, treatment can be carried out at home, but for some types of the disease (phlegmon, herpetic eczema, exfoliative dermatitis), a doctor may recommend hospitalisation. It is necessary to add a special diet, smoking cessation and alcohol, enhanced hygiene to avoid infection of wounds, and the correct selection of detergents and creams to medical procedures.

Diet is selected individually. As a rule, smoked products, spicy dishes, pickles, canned food, coffee, citrus fruits, bakery and confectionery products entirely excluded. Cereals, sour-milk products, and vegetable soups help cope with exacerbations with balanced therapy.