How smoking destroys teeth

Published At: 22 January 2020 , 10:30 AM

Smoking is a risk factor for the development of dental diseases. This is a habit that extremely negatively affects the state of organs and tissues of the oral cavity. The mucous membrane of the oral cavity, tongue, smoker's gums are affected by several unfavorable factors: the effect of high temperatures, irritating combustion products, and toxic resins. During smoking with warm smoke, various ammonia compounds, pyridine bases, methane, methyl alcohol, phenols, scenic acid, carbon monoxide, and nicotine enter the oral cavity. 

1. cigarette burning products.

Smoking can be considered as the effect of a constant traumatic factor on the organs and tissues of the oral cavity. Physical and chemical stimuli in the cells of the mucous membrane cause responses that appear with chronic inflammation - the formation of erosion, ulcers (minus tissue), or the formation of keratinization, bedding of new tissue (plus tissue). Visible changes can be manifested in the appearance of diseases such as smoker's melanosis, smoker's leukoplakia, chronic lip trauma, and others. Diseases of the oral mucosa due to smoking under adverse conditions can become malignant. In this case, patients who smoke more than a pack of cigarettes a day with an experience of more than eight years fall into the risk group and in the high-risk group - patients who smoke a pack of cigarettes a day and take alcohol more than 1 liter per week or have a "hangover syndrome" more than one time per week. For patients at risk, there is a method for early diagnosis of oral cancer - the Visit test. 

2. The method of early diagnosis system "Visit."

Dark plaque on teeth - on the inner surface of mainly lower teeth, and subsequently on the labial surface of these teeth, a dense dark plaque appears due to the deposition of cadmium sulfate on the teeth, which is formed during smoking and the interaction of combustion products with salivary proteins produced by the mandibular and sublingual glands. 

3. Plaque on the teeth of smokers.

Unpleasant smell (halitosis) - due to the accumulation in the saliva, on the surface of the root of the tongue, and in soft plaque on the teeth of gaseous substances of combustion and sulfur products of vital activity of special bacteria. The accumulation of gaseous products on the organs and tissues of the oral cavity seriously alters the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, the risk of developing pathological processes (autoimmune diseases, viral, malignant tumors) increases.

Dryness in the oral cavity - due to the action of high temperatures, "drying" of the oral mucosa occurs, and over time, due to the toxic effect of smoke, the number of small salivary glands decreases. Such changes become irreversible, and dentists are diagnosed with xerostomia, and patients experience symptoms of burning mouth and taste changes.

Gingivitis and periodontitis in smokers. In smokers, diseases such as gingivitis (gum disease) and periodontitis (inflammation of the gums and bone surrounding the tooth) develop in a special way. In people who do not smoke, signs of the onset of problems with the gums are the appearance of bleeding - a signal for the appearance of inflammation. In smokers, nicotine compresses the terminal blood vessels, and, as a rule, the gums do not bleed. At the same time, nicotine and other toxic products weaken the defense cells in the gum tissue, and the destructive process asymptomatically affects the deeper gum tissue and bone. The patient does not feel pain, and he does not worry about bleeding. Therefore, he seeks treatment when the process already has excessively large bone defects and pronounced tooth mobility. Thus, nicotine causes a euphoric state and, therefore, a painful dependence, compresses the terminal blood vessels (disrupts circulation), changes the mucous membrane, kills defense cells. Treatment of periodontitis in patients without smoking cessation is not effective. 

4. The condition of periodontal tissues in smokers.

Smokers melanosis - manifests itself in the form of a diffuse brown spot on the mucous membrane of the lips, gums, cheeks, palate, and the bottom of the oral cavity. Melanosis is often accompanied by a brown plaque on the teeth and halitosis. Melanosis alone is not oral cancer, but there may be serious changes in the mucous membrane in other parts of the mouth. 

5. Smokers melanosis on the cheek mucosa

6. Smokers melanosis in the lateral part of the soft palate.

Leukkeratosis of smokers - the disease manifests itself in people who smoke cigarettes to the base. Leukokeratosis develops on both surfaces of the lips at the point of contact with the cigarette, and a seal appears at the point of holding the cigarette. Usually found in the elderly. When erosion appears at this site, its transformation into CANCER should be excluded. 

7. Leukkeratosis of smokers on the mucous membrane of the lips.

Nicotine stomatitis - manifests itself at the beginning of the habit of smoking with reddening of the sky, expansion of the ducts of small salivary glands in the sky, and with continued smoking over the years, the mucous membrane of the palate and tongue thickens, a "whitish" color and a look resembling a "cobblestone pavement" appear. The reason is chronic irritation with high temperatures when smoking a pipe and cigars. 

8. Nicotine stomatitis.

Smoker's leukoplakia - appears on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, under the tongue, on the inner surface of the lip with a painless thickening of white color with a corrugated surface. It is observed already in the early stages of the formation of a bad habit. Refers to precancerous. Such changes are associated with the carcinogenic effect of nitrosamines contained in tobacco. 

9. Leukoplakia of the bottom of the oral cavity and the lower surface of the tongue.

Smoking and delayed healing

Smoking negatively affects wound healing in the mouth. This is due to reduced blood supply caused by nicotine and dry mouth. Do not smoke after you have had surgery, including tooth extraction! If, however, you continue to abuse tobacco, the risk of developing alveolitis or the so-called "dry hole" is increased. After extraction, a blood clot forms in the hole of the extracted tooth, protecting the bone and nerve endings. However, smoking counteracts successful healing and prevents the formation of a blood clot, leaving the bone and nerve endings vulnerable. This can lead to infection and severe pain, bad breath, and unpleasant taste.

The negative effect of smoking is considered reversible if the patient stops smoking, but this will require a long period. It is believed that the factor of smoking loses its effect on the occurrence of malignant tumors only ten years after cessation of tobacco use.

10. Anti-tobacco stocks in Singapore and India

We, dentists, daily see the negative impact of smoking on the condition of the teeth and tissues of the oral cavity, which is why we consider it advisable to maintain anti-smoking activities and suggest that we make a note on the medical history of the disease - "SMOKER," as these are patients who lead a "deadly lifestyle."