RHINITIS: Symptoms, Causes, Types and Treatment

Published At: 24 January 2020 , 12:59 PM

What is rhinitis?

This is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa. The blood vessels of the nose swell, as a result of edema, the nose is blocked, also, too much mucus produced in it. In everyday life, we call rhinitis a runny nose.

Types of Rhinitis

Infectious rhinitis. As a rule, it occurs in acute viral or bacterial infections: severe respiratory viral infections and others.

Vasomotor rhinitis. It occurs with increased sensitivity of the mucous membranes as a reaction to cold, pungent odours and other reflex irritants.

Allergic rhinitis occurs as a reaction to allergens, as well as a result of sensitization to bacteria and viruses (infectious, allergic rhinitis).

Chronic rhinitis can develop as a result of persistent acute or allergic rhinitis or impaired local circulation in the nose.

Symptoms of Rhinitis

Nasal congestion;

difficulty in nasal breathing;

accumulation of mucus;

"Current" nose;

sneezing

cough and sore throat as a result of dripping snot on the back wall;

with allergic rhinitis, an additional symptom may be itching in the nose, eyes and throat.

When to go to the doctor?

If the symptoms of rhinitis bother you actively and for a long time, they not eliminated by conventional over-the-counter drugs.

Causes of Rhinitis

The causes that can cause rhinitis are manifold:

SARS and other infections;

allergens

dust, pungent odours, smog, smoke, tobacco smoke and other nasal irritants;

a sharp change in temperature, air humidity;

some drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, beta-blockers, sedatives, antidepressants ;

uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictor drops, dependence on them called drug rhinitis;

some types of food (spicy foods, alcoholic beverages; rhinitis can occur with intolerance to gluten, lactose, etc.);

hormonal changes during pregnancy, menstruation, the use of oral contraceptives;

hormonal disruptions, for example, with diseases of the thyroid gland;

acid reflux.

Rhinitis Complications

sinusitis ;

polyps in the nose are benign formations that occur in the nasal passages and sinuses of the nose as a result of chronic inflammation. Small polyps do not cause problems, but large polyps can interfere with normal nasal breathing;

middle ear infections;

sleep problems decreased productivity during the day.

How to prevent rhinitis?

You can reduce its probability:

do not appear in smoky and gassed places, if you work in such conditions - wear a respirator;

Avoid allergens or situations in which your nose becomes hypersensitive;

do not abuse vasoconstrictor drugs! Use them no more than 2-3 times a day in the minimum sufficient dosage. Use them no longer than three days in a row.

Allergic or infectious rhinitis?

If you are always bothered by a runny nose, you can find out its nature by using a skin test or by taking blood samples for antibodies to specific allergens. Sometimes rhinitis has a mixed allergic-infectious nature.

Rhinitis or sinusitis?

If an ENT doctor suspects that your rhinitis complicated by sinusitis, he can use nasal endoscopy (examination of the nasal cavity and sinuses with a thin optical device - an endoscope) or recommend an X-ray of the sinuses.

Rhinitis treatment

You can use a rinse to remove mucus from the nasal passages. Use boiled water for washing, adding a little table salt to it.

Blow your nose to lighten your nose. Always blow out only one nostril tightly holding the other, and open your mouth.

Drink as much liquid as possible so that the mucus in the nose is not so vicious and thick and more comfortable to remove.

Humidify the air you breathe. You can use humidifiers and nasal sprays with saline like Aqua Maris.

Different types of rhinitis can relieve sprays and drops with corticosteroids, some antihistamines sprays, anticholinergic sprays (such as Atrovent), Nazonex, vasoconstrictor drops. Remember that dosage strictly adhered to, about side effects, and that some of these drugs cannot be used without a doctor's prescription.